Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. In other words, the contra-positive negates and switches the parts of the sentence. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. The statements above and their contra-positives tell us nothing about someone who is loved. “All” is often used on the LSAT in conditional statements. [Choose all that apply]. This simply reverses the entire statement. Original Statement: A Only if B = If A then BContra Positive: If Not B then Not A, Original Statement: A If and Only If B = If A then B and If B then AContra Positive: If Not B then Not A, and If Not A then Not B. If Not B (do not score high) Then Not A (did Not take a course). Let’s use the variables A and B to represent the two parts of this conditional statement. Convert this into an If then Statement separating out two elements of the statement and identifying them as A and B. On the LSAT they may complicate questions by adding multiple elements to A and B.For example: Only if you go to law school and pass the bar exam can you become a lawyer. 9. 7. Partner Solutions The LSAT Analytical Reasoning (games) section is riddled with formal logic. On the contrary: test-makers have made a concerted effort (especially in recent years) to scale back the number of LR questions that do so, because such questions disproportionately benefit students who have been exposed to formal logic. Let’s look at a couple of examples, using the idea of a vegetable salad. Original Statement: Only if A then B = If B then AContra Positive: If Not A then Not B. As for (iv), Craig’s grade is outside the scope of the statement, so it’s quite consistent that he get a B+. We can turn that sentence into this: If the burger has onions, then it has mustard. Statements like the above could be something like: If Sara puts bananas in her milkshake she will also add either oranges or blueberries. By learning to express IF-THEN statements symbolically and to quickly identify the contra-positive of an IF-THEN statement you can improve your score on the Games and Logical Reasoning sections of the LSAT. For example if it is given that you did not pass the Bar exam then you can conclude that you will not become a lawyer. Given the information in number 7. above: If Michael is not loved then what conclusion can we draw? Note: This one can be a bit tricky and demonstrates the need to memorize and rely upon the method for determining the contra-positive. LSAT Formal Logic. Furthermore, the Analytical Reasoning section is based entirely in formal logic. Formal logic is a set of rules for making deductions that seem self evident. If you do not have some basis in logic, you must speak to your tutor … Sufficient, Next: What’s Tested on the LSAT: Logic Games, Contact Us The simplest statement and its contrapositive might look like this: If the stir-fry has carrots, then it has peapods. The following tutorial will help you learn formal logic for both the LSAT Analytical Reasoning Section (Games) and the LSAT Logical Reasoning Section. 8. If either A1 or A2 are missing it becomes Not A. Here are some formal logic examples to help you with producing symbolic IF-THEN statements and the Contra-Positive. LSAT Apprentice Posts: 23 Joined: Tue Sep 15, 2020 12:59 am Points: 23 . For the purpose of finding the contra-positive the opposite of “A1 OR A2” is “Not A1 and Not A2” because if you have either A1 or A2 you satisfy the condition of “A1 OR A2”, Contra-Positive: If Not B then Not A1 AND Not A2. Common Mistake on the LSAT: Many students make the mistake of drawing some other information or conclusion from an IF-THEN or conditional statement. It can be extremely helpful to individually negate each element of the statement; otherwise, it’s easy to get confused. The easiest way to deal with that is to remember that “neither X nor Y” is the same thing as “no X and no Y.”  The example above can be rephrased as follows: If the stirfry has no carrots or no peppers, then it has neither peapods nor spinach. “Only if” statements are interpreted differently than regular “if” statements.

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