In general they were not forced to convert, but they suffered from restrictions. [55] In 1295 however, the new Khan of the Ilkhanate, Ghazan, converted to Islam, and two decades later the Golden Horde under Uzbeg Khan (reigned 1313-1341) followed suit. The history of Arab and Islamic rule in the Iberian peninsula is probably one of the most studied periods of European history. Considerable controversy exists as to how conversion to Islam came about in the Indian subcontinent. Ismailis were instructed to speak potential converts in their own language. As a result, Muslim population in Europe has steadily risen. Although extreme religious tolerance was seen during the rule of emperor Akbar's, the reign under emperor Aurangzeb witnessed the full establishment of Islamic sharia and the re-introduction of Jizya through the compilation of the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri. [13] For the subjects of this new empire, formerly subjects of the greatly reduced Byzantine Empire and obliterated Sasanian Empire, not much changed in practice. The independent role of proximity to pre-Islamic trade routes, as a means of gaining access to the Muslim trading network, was also an important contributor. Islam would later be able to spread quickly through trade, the appealing nature of the Islamic faith, and military campaigns. The people of the Islamic world created numerous sophisticated centers of culture and science with far-reaching mercantile networks, travelers, scientists, hunters, mathematicians, physicians, and philosophers, all contributing to the Islamic Golden Age. The reasons why, by the end of the 10th century, a large part of the population had converted to Islam are diverse. The faith spread in a similar manner in modern-day Malaysia. [53], Another contemporary institution identified as Muslim, the Qarakhanid dynasty of the Kara-Khanid Khanate, operated much further east,[53] established by Karluks who became Islamized after converting under Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan in the mid-10th century. Eaton, Richard M. The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. The second method was trade, which spread the message of Islam through merchants. 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In such a fashion the city persisted as a religious community under an Arab Muslim domination more welcome and more tolerant than that of Byzantium. Harun Abu Jaʻfar (786-809), sent the keys of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to Charlemagne, who built a hospice for Latin pilgrims near the shrine.[26]. These clans came to serve as catalysts, forwarding the faith to large parts of the Horn region.[66]. The Arab merchants and traders became the carriers of the new religion and they propagated it wherever they went. Like their Byzantine and late Sasanian predecessors, the Marwanid caliphs nominally ruled the various religious communities but allowed the communities' own appointed or elected officials to administer most internal affairs. P. M. ( Peter Malcolm) Holt, Bernard Lewis, Colin Brown, A Short History of Indonesia". In the ninth century, Palestine was conquered by the Fatimid Caliphate, whose capital was Cairo. Their arrival coincided with a period of political weakness in the three centuries old kingdom established in the Iberian peninsula by the Germanic Visigoths, who had taken over the region after seven centuries of Roman rule. [48] There is no clear indication of when Islam first came to the region, the first Muslim gravestone markings date to 1082. [24], Islam has continued to spread through commerce and migrations; especially in Southeast Asia, America and Europe.[13]. Traders brought their religion to West Africa where Islam quickly spread throughout the region.

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