Caesium is an Alkaline Earth Metal, categorized by their one valence electron. "Water pills" can also decrease potassium in the body. Water pills (Diuretic drugs) interacts with CESIUM. Trace quantities also originate from natural fission of uranium-238. A large emitting volume will harm the image quality in radiography. As of 4 November 2015[update] the samples are still missing. Caesium-137, along with other radioactive isotopes caesium-134, iodine-131, xenon-133, and strontium-90, were released into the environment during nearly all nuclear weapon tests and some nuclear accidents, most notably the Chernobyl disaster and the Fukushima Daiichi disaster. [11]:114 The biological half-life of caesium is about 70 days. The caesium precipitated with ferric ferrocyanide (Prussian blue) would be the only waste requiring special burial sites. It is among the most problematic of the short-to-medium-lifetime fission products because it easily moves and spreads in nature due to the high water solubility of caesium's most common chemical compounds, which are salts. [5] In medicine, it is used in radiation therapy. A contract crew was transferring the caesium from the lab to a truck when the powder was spilled. The mean contamination of caesium-137 in Germany following the Chernobyl disaster was 2000 to 4000 Bq/m². These include hydrothermal blasting. These elements react violently with water, and the reactions get more violent the heavier the metal gets. [16], Accidental ingestion of caesium-137 can be treated with Prussian blue, which binds to it chemically and reduces the biological half-life to 30 days.[17]. [citation needed]. [8], Caesium-137 is also used as a radioactive tracer in geologic research to measure soil erosion and deposition. In the Goiânia accident of 1987, an improperly disposed of radiation therapy system from an abandoned clinic in Goiânia, Brazil, was removed then cracked to be sold in junkyards, and the glowing caesium salt sold to curious, unadvised buyers. [4], Caesium-137 has a number of practical uses. [5] In industry, it is used in flow meters, thickness gauges,[5] moisture-density gauges (for density readings, with americium-241/beryllium providing the moisture reading),[6] and in gamma ray well logging devices.[6]. [36], "Cesium 137" redirects here. [34][35], Thirteen people were exposed to caesium-137 in May 2019 at the Research and Training building in the Harborview Medical Center complex. As an almost purely man-made isotope, caesium-137 has been used to date wine and detect counterfeits[7] and as a relative-dating material for assessing the age of sedimentation occurring after 1945. In July 2011, meat from 11 cows shipped to Tokyo from Fukushima Prefecture was found to have 1,530 to 3,200 becquerels per kilogram of 137Cs, considerably exceeding the Japanese legal limit of 500 becquerels per kilogram at that time. The biological behaviour of caesium is similar to that of potassium[10] and rubidium. Also the higher specific activity caesium sources tend to be made from caesium chloride, as a result if a radiography source was damaged it would increase the spread of the contamination. The samples were moved out of a secure location to be used for education. It is a soft, silvery-golden alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C (83.3 °F), which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. This procedure has been used by researchers to check the authenticity of certain rare wines, most notably the purported "Jefferson bottles". The most contaminated area where radiation doses are greater than 50 mSv/year must remain off limits, but some areas that are currently less than 5 mSv/year may be decontaminated, allowing 22,000 residents to return. Caesium-137 in the environment is substantially anthropogenic (human-made). [31], In March 2015, the Norwegian University of Tromsø lost 8 radioactive samples including samples of caesium-137, americium-241, and strontium-90. Trace quantities also originate from natural fission of uranium-238. Caesium has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. For the band, see, "CDC Radiation Emergencies | Radioisotope Brief: Cesium-137 (Cs-137)", "How Atomic Particles Helped Solve A Wine Fraud Mystery", "CDC Radiation Emergencies | Facts About Prussian Blue", "Higher radiation in Jotunheimen than first believed", "High levels of caesium in Fukushima beef", "Fish near Fukushima reportedly contains high Cesium level", "Biological proliferation of cesium-137 through the detrital food chain in a forest ecosystem in Japan", "Radiation and analytical chemistry – Five years since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident", "The material flow of radioactive cesium-137 in the U.S. 2000", "News Analysis: Christie's Is Counterfeit Crusader's Biggest Target", "Vítima do césio-137 lembra depressão e preconceito após acidente", "UiT har mistet radioaktivt stoff – kan ha blitt kastet", "Stort metallskap sporløst forsvunnet. Caesium-137 has a half-life of about 30.17 years. By observing the characteristic gamma rays emitted by this isotope, one can determine whether the contents of a given sealed container were made before or after the first atomic bomb explosion (Trinity test, 16 July 1945), which spread some of it into the atmosphere, quickly distributing trace amounts of it around the globe. [23] The aim is to get annual exposure from the contaminated environment down to 1 mSv above background. Five people were decontaminated and released, but 8 who were more directly exposed were taken to the hospital while the research building was evacuated. It is possible to make water insoluble caesium sources but their specific activity will be much lower. Because of the increased specific volume of cesium, as compared with the lighter alkali metals, there is a lesser tendency for it to form alloy systems with other metals. [12], A 1961 experiment showed that mice dosed with 21.5 μCi/g had a 50% fatality within 30 days (implying an LD50 of 245 µg/kg). If you mean the reaction equation it is 2Cs + 2H2O --> 2CsOH + H2 After entering the body, caesium gets more or less uniformly distributed throughout the body, with the highest concentrations in soft tissue. Caesium is a curious alkali metal known to be extremely reactive and super-explosive when it comes into contact with water - even at temperatures of -116 °C (−177 °F). [26][27] [21] By the end of 2014, "Fukushima-derived radiocaesium had spread into the whole western North Pacific Ocean", transported by the North Pacific current from Japan to the Gulf of Alaska. [1] Iridium-192 and Cobalt-60, 6027Co, are preferred for radiography, since these are chemically nonreactive metals and can be obtained with much higher specific activities by the activation of stable cobalt or iridium in high flux reactors. Large amounts of cesium can decrease potassium levels in the body. [19] In March 2013, a fish caught near the plant had a record 740,000 becquerels per kilogram of radioactive caesium, above the 100 becquerels per kilogram government limit. [9], Caesium-137 reacts with water, producing a water-soluble compound (caesium hydroxide). The formula for cesium is Cs, it is a simple element. Over 9 years, two families had lived in the apartment. An investigation by the agency traced the source to a building from which STUK and a radioactive waste treatment company operate. In small amounts, it is used to calibrate radiation-detection equipment.

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